Using SoundFonts in 2016

I made my first SoundFont instrument in 1995. I was fifteen. At that time, it was a brand-new technology only available on the Sound Blaster AWE32 PC sound card. I used to bring boxes of floppy disks to my piano lesson so that my teacher could let me use the university computer lab for downloading SoundFonts; we didn’t yet have Internet at home. SoundFont technology was my introduction to virtual instrument design, and over the next several years, I continued working in this format, honing the skills that would eventually lead to my current job with Acoustica.

Over the years, SoundFonts have remained a pretty universal way of distributing sample-based instrument sounds. The format has long been surpassed in features by the likes of SFZ and Kontakt, but yet, SoundFonts still persist. A great many DAWs and audio plugins support the format, as well as programs such as DOS game emulators, notation software, and media players.

The SoundFont spec went through a few revisions at the hand of the format’s creator, Creative Labs, the most significant being version 2.01, introduced in 1998. Supported at the time on Creative’s new Audigy series sound cards as well as pro audio hardware by E-MU, SoundFont version 2.01 added support for “modulators”, allowing different types of MIDI input (key velocity, key number, continuous controllers, etc.) to control any number of synth parameters. Using these modulators, a sound designer can determine exactly how note-on velocity affects note loudness or filter cutoff, map the mod wheel to control filter cutoff, crossfade samples, and much, much more.

These modulators are actually very powerful, but few SoundFonts today make use of them. There are a number of reasons for this:

  1. Earlier Sound Blaster sound cards (AWE32/64 and Live!) did not support SoundFont 2.01 modulators, so any SoundFont banks created using those sound cards do not make use of modulators. Only the Sound Blaster Audigy, Audigy 2, X-Fi, and E-MU APS sound cards featured full SoundFont 2.01 functionality (to my knowledge). In addition, people haven’t really been using hardware SoundFont synths for a while now.

  2. Most software SoundFont synths are not compatible with the 2.01 spec, and many aren’t compatible with any version of the spec! This has lead many SoundFont designers to code for the lowest common denominator. Alas, many SoundFonts today are nothing more than samples mapped to keys, with scant little in the way of actual sound programming.

  3. I am aware of only two SoundFont editors that allow both A) editing modulators, and B) being able to hear the effect of the modulators. These editors are:

    1. Vienna SoundFont Studio 2. Not to be confused with another SoundFont editor, Viena (one “n”), Creative Labs’ Vienna SoundFont Studio requires a supported sound card (specific cards by Creative Labs and E-MU) to run. To make matters worse, the latest version of Vienna (2.40.60) removes access to the instrument and sample pools, making it very difficult to properly manage a SoundFont bank. An earlier version (2.3 version 1.31.0) doesn’t have this problem, and it is what I still use as my primary SoundFont creation tool to this day. However, this version was never made available for download (it shipped on certain install CDs), and is very difficult to find online. Furthermore, it is a 16-bit application, which means it will not run in 64-bit Windows.

    2. Swami. This SoundFont editor uses the excellent FluidSynth at its core, and is able to not only edit modulators, but all effects can be heard and manipulated. Unfortunately, Swami is currently a bit of a work-in-progress, and only supports Linux at the time of this posting (unless you compile it yourself for Windows/Mac).

Of the other available SoundFont editors, Viena and Polyphone allow editing modulators, but the editors’ built-in SoundFont playback does not allow you to hear their effect. In addition, out of all of these, only Vienna SoundFont Studio properly displays the list of default modulators, allowing the sound designer to easily turn them off. (Here is a video I made that covers this, for any interested developers. It was originally made to help the Swami dev team.)

This state of inconsistent support is not unique to the SoundFont format. Other complex formats attempting widespread use suffer from the same problems. SVG files, for example, don’t display properly in some applications. Older audio players can’t handle variable-bitrate MP3s. Another popular sampler format, SFZ, sees a wide disparity of compatibility as well, with some samplers unable to handle the more complex instruments.

“I’m not dead yet!”

It is 2016. Gone are the days when dedicated audio processing hardware is required to achieve a professional sound. Music is created using software synths and effects now. So, if you are wanting to use SoundFonts in your home studio, chances are you are looking for a VST plugin rather than grabbing a Creative sound card off the shelf at your local Best Buy (do their current sound cards even support SoundFonts anymore? I doubt it…).

So if you are looking for SoundFont-compatible software, you’ll find there is a lot out there. And as you might expect, the quality varies quite widely. The available software can be broken down into three categories:

  1. Programs that emulate a General MIDI device. These programs usually install an internal MIDI device that adheres to the General MIDI (GM) standard. This is also how the onboard SoundFont synth of the Live!, Audigy, etc. sound cards worked. These virtual MIDI devices are less useful for modern music production, but are ideal for things such as DOS game emulation or playing General MIDI-compatible files. Some of the programs in this category are: CoolSoft VirtualMIDISynth, FluidSynth (and its various installable GUIs), SyFonOne, and TiMidity++.

  2. DAW plugins (VST, AU, LV2). These programs integrate directly into your DAW, and provide the best music production workflow, including the ability to bounce out audio with the rest of the project (unlike synths from the first category above). Unfortunately, this category is also the most bleak in terms of full SoundFont support, the lone exception being the Calf Fluidsynth plugin, which currently only runs on Linux. Most DAW plugins that advertise SoundFont support aren’t even trying to be compatible with the spec, often just pulling the samples out of the SoundFont file and re-mapping them in the plugin’s native format. There are some decent options available, however. Some of the programs in this category are: bismark bs-16/bs-1/bs-0 (PC/Mac), bismark bs-16i (iOS), Calf Fluidsynth (Linux), DLSMusicDevice (Mac), Jeskola XS-1, LinuxSampler, Phenome, SafFronSE, sfz, VSTSynthFont. There are many samplers available as well that can import SF2 files, but I have excluded them from this list.

  3. Self-contained programs. These applications aren’t trying to make a SoundFont synth that is available to other programs. Rather, the SoundFont support is only accessible within the program. Examples include SynthFont, JOrgan, VLC media player, and some DAWs such as FL Studio and LMMS.

The Tests

I created a test to determine a synth’s compliance with the official SoundFont specification. I have chosen to test the synths that A) stand out for their quality/popularity, and B) were available to me. In cases where multiple programs use the same synth engine, I only tested one. For example, LMMS, MuseScore, and others all use FluidSynth under-the-hood, so I only tested FluidSynth. Same thing with SynthFont, which shares code with VSTSynthFont and SyFonOne. A good many programs were left off of the compatibility chart as they were unable to complete even the most basic compatibility tests (Phenome, SafFronSE, and a good many other VST instruments).

I have posted the results of my tests in a  compatibility chart (the contents of this document may change as tests are added/updated). The legend for the test results: green = full support, yellow = working but not a proper/ideal implementation, red = broken or not supported. You can read detailed notes on each of the tested synths here.

Here is a document explaining how each test is performed. Any software developers interested in improving their SoundFont software can e-mail me at “s_chriscollins AT”. I will be happy to test the SoundFont compatibility of your product. Or you may run the tests yourself if you’d like, although I must forewarn you that my documentation is not as comprehensive as it could be.

Test Results

As you can see from the test results (as of 2/29/16), there is only one software synth with complete support for the SoundFont 2.01 spec: FluidSynth. Nothing else even comes close (apart from the Audigy 2 hardware implementation, of course). FluidSynth is a command-line application that runs as a General MIDI device. There are also GUIs that you can install such as Qsynth or FluidSynthGUI if you’d rather not type commands. FluidSynth is also built into programs such as LMMS, MuseScore, ScummVM, and VLC media player to provide SoundFont support within those applications. Unfortunately, its existence as a DAW plugin is currently limited to Linux (Calf Fluidsynth LV2 plugin, FluidSynth DSSI), and may stay that way due to incompatibilities between Steinberg’s VST SDK license and FluidSynth’s GPL v2 license.

FluidSynth actually betters the official Creative/E-MU hardware implementations in a few ways. It has a better-sounding filter (to my ears, anyway), with access to the full range in both cutoff and resonance (the Sound Blaster caps off at a certain point). FluidSynth also ignores the 2.01 spec default modulator for “velocity to filter cutoff”, which is a good thing. You can read why in my test notes and observations.

If you don’t care about 2.01 modulator support, CoolSoft’s VirtualMIDISynth (itself based on the BASS audio library) also makes a strong showing, but this program will only appeal to those looking for a virtual GM device.

The best SoundFont VST/AU plugin for Windows and Mac that I tested is bismark bs-16 (or the single-channel version: bs-1). It doesn’t support modulators, and the filter implementation is not perfect, but instruments generally sound as they should. It is also very flexible, allowing realtime manipulation of the ADSR envelope and filter, among other things. The plugin is not free, but can be demoed as long as you don’t mind the sound of the occasional dog bark. There is a free version, bs-0, but it is extremely limited.

If you’re looking for a free SoundFont VST/AU plugin for Windows or Mac, I’m sorry to report that nothing I have found is very good. Jeskola XS-1 is decent as long as you don’t run more than one instance at a time and don’t mind it badly interpreting instrument layer volume and other parameters. The old rcg:audio sfz plugin has been around for a long time, but it also gets some things very wrong, including a very shallow velocity curve that really messes with the balance of many instrument sounds. Also, you will need to hunt down the multi-core-friendly version if you want to avoid issues on modern PCs. Macs can use Apple’s DLSMusicDevice, but it’s pretty terrible, failing the majority of my tests.

In Conclusion

The purpose of this blog post was to provide a thorough review of the SoundFont technology as it stands in 2016. It is my hope that this information will be useful to others in the field—musicians, virtual instrument designers, synth plugin developers—perhaps leading to better support for the standard moving forward.

What’s still missing at this point in time is a VST/AU virtual instrument with complete support of the SoundFont 2.01 spec, as well as a good, cross-platform SoundFont editor that supports and can audition 2.01 modulators.

I realize that clamoring for change regarding an aging technology might fall upon deaf ears. However, I still see a lot of life in this old format. There is an obscene number of SoundFont instruments available online, and new, SoundFont-compatible software continues to be actively developed. SoundFonts might not be as feature-rich as Kontakt instruments (no round-robin or scripting, for example), but they are perfect for many tasks, and I make use of them frequently in my own music production.

So, you have now heard my very long and technical plea. I have no idea how many others will care about this as much as I do, but I thank all of you who stuck it out to the end! Please let me know your thoughts in the comments, and have a blessed day!

And don’t forget to check out my SoundFonts and music at!


49 thoughts on “Using SoundFonts in 2016

  1. Excellence, thank you S. Christian….i only started in 2007 but always was allured by the simplicity of .sf2 files….however SFZ fails alot and it will be years before I can program on a high level. Great Read.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I also program (even nowadays…2016) SoundFont-patches with “Vienna SoundFont Studio”
    with a lot of fun!
    But I prefer, as before, the “hardware-solution” (the E-MU APS Synth/Sampler)
    I think the last “Vienna SoundFont Studio”-version 2.4xxx was a step backwards,
    therefore I also prefer the older version (v2.3xxxx)

    Case one of the “SounFont-Technology- / “Vienna SoundFont Studio” -programmers
    should stumble across this blog;
    it would be great if there could be further development / updates…
    e.g. Wave-start Modulation via additional LFO


  3. hi Christian thank you, your article very helpful for me on next step of my soundfont, iam very disappoint about creative lab i though soundcore 3D are more powerfull DSP rich feature etc it could bring a great plus in soundfont, well i was wrong. they just dropping the support of soundfont on their soundcard after x-fi .its really look down in MIDI world.


  4. Indeed vst soundfont plugins are a nightmare. Thanks for the suggestions and the very informative post, it was really needed as there is nothing like it around. Testing your general user sf2, so far I have found awesome patches, it may become by default gm set!


  5. Great post man! Usually I don’t leave comments, but you did a great job finding a gem. The bs-16. I’m trying to find something similar to sonar but just now I could find it with your help. Really thanks.


  6. you can convert to SF2 via Extreme Sample Converter any kontakt–real guitar any VST with the tempo of your midifile. and less cpu to use!! long live to Sf2..


  7. Pingback: I care deeply about soundfonts in 2016! – Waidanian’s Codex

  8. Thanks for your article. I’m an avid sf2 user and designer, particularly for iOS devices (iPhone/iPad) and am convinced the soundfont technology is still very worthy of support in 2016. For those who have tried SampleTank, Korg Module, iGrand or ThumbJam etc you probably found, like me, they all leave you wanting. You might be surprised that that free sf2’s can sound a whole lot better if a bit of work is put into their design. I’m happy to share these from my site if anyone is interested.


  9. Hi,
    Although VirtualMidiSynth is really just a virtual GM/GS device, the underlying Bass/Bassmidi libraries can do much more. It is constantly evolving, latest version added basic modulator support.

    As a proof of concept I’m writing a VSTi instrument plugin that is simply a wrapper around Bassmidi. This is still a very basic version, the final feature set (I hope) will be similar to my Soundfont Midi Player in bassmidi output mode (stacked soundfonts, global reverb/chorus settings etc.)

    Bassmidi VSTi plugin test version (VSTi 2.4 x86) :

    You have to copy all the dll’s to the same folder.
    Any feedback is welcome.

    Best Regards:
    Zoltan Bacsko


  10. – Thanks for the thoughtful, useful blog post.
    – I’m just starting out.
    – I (and friends) want to create an electronic concertina that does away with the need for the reds, levers, valves.
    AND we want it totally portable, with internal battery, and speakers.
    – I paid a MIDI cards designer to create a MIDI controller to emulate the buttons (one wire per button, and it delivers MIDI signals).
    – Big question for you/anyone else reading this…
    Next I want a sound module – probably available for general MIDI, but I have an SF2 file for an excellent concertina sound, and another for an accordion sound.
    Do you have any ideas about what to get? The Adafruits people have a MIDI card with amp for speakers, but nothing that’ll drive SF2 files.
    Bruce Thomson in New Zealand.


    • Hi Bruce,
      Its seems I am a bit late to the party. Still I want to share my thoughts:
      Have you considered using a tablet computer as a sampler module?
      I have been using cheap windows 10 tablets with great success as sound modules with an EWI USB electronic wind instrument.
      (of course an ipad will work fine as well. But that will cost so much more with little added value.)


      • Hi Christian,
        – I’m moving away from SoundFont files. I’m using the known concertina SF2 to create WAV files.
        – I want the Concertina Nova to be completely self-contained – all the electronics, battery and speakers inside the concertina. No wires, extra devices. And ‘guitar-cheap’ – aiming for retail price US$300.
        – That makes it suitable for teenagers to take hiking with friends for several days, play it round the campfire, in the hut with no need for mains.
        Cheers, B


  11. Hello christian can you possibly compare /add these other ones to your tests? some of these are mentioned in the comments.
    BassMIDISynth – does this one fall into the fluidsynth category? its appears to be based on the bass libraries…

    I messagged the dev for TAL and he said his synth only imports a few parameters.

    I’d also like to take the opportunity to ask; does Vienna differ from the EMU APS interface, judging by the screenshots of APS, it seems like an entirely different interface, anyone know?


    • VirtualMIDISynth uses the BASS library, so I would imagine that BassMIDI would have similar SoundFont compatibility to my VirtualMIDISynth test results. The other two samplers you mention aren’t really SoundFont synths, so I didn’t consider them for my testing. There are many samplers out there that can import SoundFonts, but with programs like TX16Wx, a conversion process is used to convert the sound bank into the plugin’s native sampler format, and compatibility with the SoundFont spec is usually very low.

      Regarding your question about Vienna: I’m not sure, since I’ve never seen the E-MU APS interface.


      • So theres conversion, makes sense. Thanks for the info!

        As for APS heres a picture of it, does it look similar? I should ask creative/EMU to see if any of this is the same under the hood. I might consider playing with an EMU ESI in the future, but if APS is more or less the same but in mouse/screen interface with vienna features built in then that would save time… over having to, sample, export fonts to the ESI and play with the ESI buttons etc.


  12. Great post!
    I still use soundfonts with FL Studio with results comparable to those achieved through more expensive vst’s.
    This is to me a great example:


      • I know you already talked about tx16wx, and even if it does convert on the fly as it seems to do (feels like is not converting at all), I find it very stable and patches play just rigth so far. Maybe you can have a second look at it? I use your GeneralUser sf2!


  13. Pingback: Replicating the Blade Runner Theme | S. Christian Collins

  14. Thank you so much for this! It’s really cleared up my confusion over what has been going with VST’s vs Soundfonts etc since I’ve come back to my music making hobby. I stumbled on this post while searching for something that could recreate the beautiful string sounds of the old AWE32 card from the 90’s, and couldn’t understand why I couldn’t find anything, and why, once I’d got going with a VST (Plogue sforzando) which could handle soundfont files, why all the dynamics of the sounds seem to have gone (assuming I’ve understoon everything correctly!)
    Thanks again.

    While I’m here, if anyone can recommend a VST plugin which can come close to reproducing the amazing (IHMO) quality of the general midi instrument set of the old AWE32 cards, I would love to know about it, including pay-for VST’s. Thanks!

    For interest, if anyone would like to take a trip back in time and hear what the AWE32 could do, I once recorded a track to mp3 back in the late 90’s and a couple of years ago I uploaded it to youtube:
    I want those strings again!!!

    All the best.


  15. Quite late to the discussion, but would anyone happen to know if something like Keppy’s Synthesizer fully supports the Soundfont spec? It’s the one that I messed around with about a year ago, and I’m also still looking into understanding the possibilities of the Soundfont format.


    • Keppy’s synth uses the Bassmidi library so will sound like Coolsoft, or anything else that uses that. I did have issues with Keppy’s synth where it wouldn’t receive sysex, so doing something like a reset was impossible for me.


      • I fixed the SysEx issue in Keppy’s Synthesizer (Now called OmniMIDI, but whatever heh) since June 2018, you guys should give it another chance! 😛
        And yes, OmniMIDI does fully support the SoundFont 2.x standard. It has partial support for SFZ too.


  16. Hello Christian and everybody, I am a musician, user of your soundfonts that comes integrated in the bs16i app on the iPad and iPhone, I want to thank you for your useful and great soundfonts. I also have in the computer the bs16 and the old but magnificent Jescola XS1. I work a lot with soundfonts and for me it’s the best option because you can make your own creation / modification of sounds and use them in any kind of electronic music.
    I am not a developer, and I don’t have the skills to make a program like these, maybe in the future I’ll try to learn, but I believe that the Sf2 format has much to give and to be developed yet. God site I’ll visit the links some of you posted. Thanks


  17. Very good article, big thanks for writing it, you just opened my eyes to so many problems, origin of which I couldn’t understand. There’s really little information about soundfont modulators on the web, as if nobody cares about them, but I care, so I checked your test suit for soundfont implementation and to my really sad surprise I discovered that all of the software synthesizers and media players, that I have at the moment, do not support all modulators. Moreover, from your recommendation I tested fluidsynth and it’s also broken at many levels… I installed VLC media player and with pitch bend test the (a) test sounds like it should, the (b) sounds the same as (a), and the (c) sounds like (b) should. Some other tests also give bad result. This is really really sad to me… And I just couldn’t understand why my soundfont doesn’t sound like it should when I added modulators to it? One week is totally ruined because of this. All this situation gives so much frustration to me, I always hated that people don’t follow specs and standards when they create software which relies on them. Terrible situation we have here…


  18. Thank you so much for these great tests! I have been implementing my own SoundFont-based synth and these tests were great for putting it through its paces. Do you know of any other good ways to validate my engine?

    I did notice a few quirks as I was trying to match my results to the provided OGG sample:

    1. Test 8 I cannot figure out what you’re trying to get at here. It’s the only test I can’t manage to pass (apart from reverb/chorus which are unimplemented at the moment). Each instrument has a different overridingRootKey and a scaleTuning of 0. Are you expecting the key number scaling to center around the overridingRootKey (and thus be fixed to it) instead of 60? I’m pretty unsure of the logic here, and feel like I must be missing something.

    2. Test 11 mentions that attenuation should decrease by 2dB per step, which actually contradicts the documentation. Worth mentioning here that this is an undocumented adjustment. I found a hack in FluidSynth to scale the attentuation amount by 0.4 when coming from the preset or instrument generator, which, when replicated in my engine, corrected the issue.

    3. Test 13a mentions a jump in behavior due to a switch in the secondary modulator source. However, this switch has been removed in the latest spec (the one you link to), so I wasn’t hearing the jump using the defaults from the spec. I went ahead and put it back in so that the behavior matches, but if you don’t hear that jump, I don’t know whether to consider it a bug or not.

    4. In test 19b, you remove the modulator for pitch bend by overriding it. The way you override it is by specifying a modulator that matches the default. Your override targets the fineTune generator, which makes sense in a way, except that the spec limits the fineTune to +/-99 cents so it’s not really an appropriate target for the pitch wheel, which can obviously create a bigger effect. FluidSynth seems to work around this by targeting an internal “Pitch” generator which doesn’t have limits, but not sure how they manage to pass your test, since your override shouldn’t cancel out their default handler. Haven’t investigated it more deeply. In my engine, I just ended up loosening the limits on fineTune so that it works here.



    • Hi Aaron. Sorry it took me so long to respond to your questions. I will do my best to answer each one:

      #1. Test 8: With scale tuning set to 0, the sample should play back at the actual pitch of the waveform (the same pitch you’d get by playing the exported WAV file), so various settings of the root key should have no affect on the pitch in this scenario.

      #2. Test 11: Yes, this is a quirk that existed in the Creative/E-MU hardware implementation of the SoundFont standard, and other SoundFont synths have followed suit as a compatibility measure. Note that this only affects the instrument and preset-level attenuation values, and doesn’t affect other parameters where decibel values are used, such as envelope sustain levels, modulator destinations, etc.

      #3. Test 13a: I wouldn’t bother implementing the SoundFont 2.01 spec version of the default velocity-to-filter-cutoff modulator. The 2.04 spec version is better (no audible jump). FluidSynth doesn’t bother to implement either version of this default modulator, opting for no default filtering at all. They did this because having two different versions of this default modulator requires two different ways to disable it, not to mention that the 2.0 spec was entirely different as well! When designing SoundFonts, I disable both versions of the modulator in every instrument just to be safe, except when I want there to be velocity-based filtering, in which case I will usually modify the 2.04 version of the modulator, NEVER the 2.01 version.

      #4: Test 19b: Hmm, perhaps the fineTune +/- 99 cents limit is for the instrument & preset-level parameters only? The description of the default pitch wheel modulator (section 8.4.10) on p. 44-45 of the 2.04 spec shows a default amount of 12700 cents with MIDI Pitch Wheel Sensitivity (set via MIDI RPN–the default is +/- 2 semitones) controlling how far the pitch wheel will ultimately bend the pitch. My test basically inverts the pitch wheel by canceling the default modulator and recreating it with a negative bipolar curve instead of the default positive bipolar curve.

      Good luck with your SoundFont engine!


    • Last I checked, you could customize velocity-to-attenuation and velocity-to-filter cutoff, but nothing else. I believe velocity-to-attenuation is limited to the default concave curve shape, and velocity-to-cutoff is limited to linear. This is all based on memory, though, so you may want to do your own testing.


  19. Hello ! I am 10 years older than you but i started later in music pc. In 1997 bought my first pc. Until now i bought SB AWE 32 ( or 64 dont remember), SB LIVE Player 1024, SB Audigy Z2( pcmcia) for my laptop, and EMU APS.
    Please i want you to help me, you can, with your knowledge. I am using EMU APS with Sibelius 6 and Note Performer 3 in a machine with only 2 GB RAM ( WinXP). In passages with lot of notes playback sucks. What i am trying to do in order to improove performance : To seperate each channel to one different slot ( called STRIP in EMU Mixer application). The problem is that when the sounds comes from 8M GM Soundfont, EMU plays it from the Midi strips an so i can seperate each channel to each strip. But when comes from NotePerformer or Sibelius Essential, EMU plays it through Wave strips and i cannot seperate them because you can use only one Wave strip. Any idea? ?
    Thanks and congratulation for your post


  20. Good day,
    I want to warn you that ESET Endpoint Antivirus is blocking your website due to the danger of a Trojan horse. Furthermore, Chrome (Chromium) blocks some downloads …. you probably have a problem on your website !!!
    Good luck in solving …


    • Thanks for the heads-up. I have not been able to find any evidence of malware on my site. My site is currently being redesigned, though, to support https and mobile, so hopefully that will keep it from causing false positives in the future.


  21. A good sound-font back in the days was “Vintage Dreams Waves”, size about 352 kB but sounded pretty amazing.

    I have good memories about my old setup from the late 90s which was Cakewalk + Sound Blaster (AWE64, Live!). Regret I didn’t fully understood the power of that setup. You had a fully powered sample based synth easily capable of competing with big name hardware synths on the pro market. Access to a mixer was difficult however you could solve that by wettening (= applying FX to them) your own samples.

    Liked by 1 person

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